Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that can affect behavior, emotions, and communication. People with schizophrenia can experience hallucinations, delusions, confused thinking, and changes in behavior.
Schizophrenia is often confused with psychosis, even though the two are different. Psychosis is one symptom of mental disorders, such as bipolar disorder, delusions, major depression, and schizophrenia. Although symptoms of psychosis can appear in schizophrenia, not all people with schizophrenia experience them.
According to data from WHO, more than 20 million people worldwide have schizophrenia. Meanwhile, according to research by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 2019, it is estimated that there are 450,000 people with severe mental disorders (ODGJ) in Indonesia, including schizophrenia. The most common type of schizophrenia is paranoid schizophrenia.
It should be noted that people with schizophrenia have a 2–3 times higher risk of dying at a young age. This is because other diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, or infection, generally accompany schizophrenia.
Symptoms and Causes of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia symptoms are divided into two categories: positive signs and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms are characterized by a change in perception, which results in the sufferer behaving unnaturally. These symptoms can be hallucinations, delusions (delusions), or abnormal behavior.
Meanwhile, negative symptoms are characterized by the patient's inability to socialize. This symptom is characterized by the tendency of sufferers to withdraw from society and not care about appearance.
The cause of schizophrenia itself is not known with certainty. However, some factors are thought to increase the occurrence of schizophrenia, including genetic factors and environmental influences.
Treatment and Prevention of Schizophrenia
Until now, no medicine can cure schizophrenia. However, some treatments can control and reduce symptoms. Such treatment may take the form of:
Administration of antipsychotic drugs
The prevention of schizophrenia is to detect and treat it early so that the worsening and recurrence of this disease can be prevented. That way, the quality of life of sufferers will improve.